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❶To break up a whole into its parts, to examine in detail so as to determine the nature of, to look more deeply into an issue or situation.

Critical Reading v. Critical Thinking

Glossary: C
Just like the horse whisperer – but with more pages
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We both have masters degrees; his is in science education. He teaches 9th grade science at a public school. So his questions made me think hard about what I had learned about how to teach students to evaluate Internet sources. Personally, I only know about those sites because people use them as examples when teaching how to evaluate websites. There are scores of sites that list examples for teachers to use. But I would argue that they are not the examples we should be using.

They are not what will be on the first page of results on a real life information query. And in all fairness, more likely to have decent information. I was helping a student who had to write a paper on psychedelic mushrooms. This is a recurring assignment from a Comp I professor who has his students write about various drugs, so I already knew from past experience that our library had relatively little information on this particular topic.

The student had a note from her teacher saying she had relied too heavily on one particular source. It turned out to be an excellent teaching moment, and a much better example of the type of site we should be showing students how to evaluate. It turned out that nearly every quote this student had selected for her paper had originally come from a government publication.

Even better, the Erowid site included a direct link to the original source. I explained that the dates on these reports were a little older and showed her how she could find more recent information from the same government organizations.

I very much doubt she followed up on every one, but hopefully she at least learned something about evaluating websites and following citations.

It also gives the librarian a chance to explain how this content is different from what one might find with solely a Google search. I fully support Bennington in his focus on Wikipedia. It is also another example of the complexity of Internet sources and another chance to practice critical thinking. The Wikipedia community responded quickly, fixing the error and protecting the page from further attack. So while it can be edited by anyone and errors do occur, so do corrections, another feature.

We do our students a disservice when we dismiss such an amazing and useful resource, when instead we could be using it to teach them about the research process not to mention the power of individuals working together to share knowledge. Using more realistic examples in our instruction and explaining the positive aspects as well as the negative will help both the students and our image.

As my brother said, when he has searched for something online, he mostly receives decent information. He and our students have every right to be skeptical of the skeptics. In Free Culture , Elizabeth Daley discusses using various media in education, but her point applies here as well:.

Nothing you can do matters. He can dismiss you or he [can] dismiss himself. There are many resources that are perfectly useful throughout the research process that may not be appropriate to cite in the final paper. I read Wikipedia entries. I also used the more encouraged sources, searching the library catalog and subscription databases, and browsing the shelves. This was an obscure subject and required a lot of digging. By far my most useful source was Vikinganswerlady. Her resume lists experience in computer science and web design, but no degrees and nothing related to viking studies.

Yet, reading through the site she is obviously dedicated, well read, and documents her sources. These two articles in particular provided much of the serious analysis that was missing from the easy to find general information. They also provided a large number of attempted and partial translations of runic inscriptions that helped inform my summaries of the various types extant. I was lucky enough to be pointed to those articles because I emailed Viking Answer Lady with my general thesis and asked her advice on where to look for more information.

She might not fit the standard authority criteria that were established in the pre-Internet age, but I would argue she is most definitely an authority. Remember, gossip is a form of collaborative learning; peer group indoctrination is a form of collaborative learning; mass hysteria is a form of speed collaborative learning mass learning of a most undesirable kind.

We learn prejudices collaboratively, social hates and fears collaboratively, stereotypes and narrowness of mind, collaboratively. So there are a lot of important educational goals deeply tied into critical thinking just as critical thinking is deeply tied into them. Basically the problem in the schools is that we separate things, treat them in isolation and mistreat them as a result. We end up with a superficial representation, then, of each of the individual things that is essential to education, rather than seeing how each important good thing helps inform all the others.

What can teachers do to "kindle" this spark and keep it alive in education? First of all, we kill the child's curiosity, her desire to question deeply, by superficial didactic instruction. Young children continually ask why. Why this and why that? And why this other thing? But we soon shut that curiosity down with glib answers, answers to fend off rather than to respond to the logic of the question. In every field of knowledge, every answer generates more questions, so that the more we know the more we recognize we don't know.

It is only people who have little knowledge who take their knowledge to be complete and entire. If we thought deeply about almost any of the answers which we glibly give to children, we would recognize that we don't really have a satisfactory answer to most of their questions. Many of our answers are no more than a repetition of what we as children heard from adults. We pass on the misconceptions of our parents and those of their parents.

We say what we heard, not what we know. We rarely join the quest with our children. We rarely admit our ignorance, even to ourselves. Why does rain fall from the sky? Why is snow cold? What is electricity and how does it go through the wire? Why are people bad? Why does evil exist?

Why is there war? Why did my dog have to die? Why do flowers bloom? Do we really have good answers to these questions? How does curiosity fit in with critical thinking? To flourish, curiosity must evolve into disciplined inquiry and reflection.

Left to itself it will soar like a kite without a tail, that is, right into the ground! Intellectual curiosity is an important trait of mind, but it requires a family of other traits to fulfill it. It requires intellectual humility, intellectual courage, intellectual integrity, intellectual perseverance, and faith in reason. After all, intellectual curiosity is not a thing in itself — valuable in itself and for itself.

It is valuable because it can lead to knowledge, understanding, and insight; because it can help broaden, deepen, sharpen our minds, making us better, more humane, more richly endowed persons. To reach these ends, the mind must be more than curious, it must be willing to work, willing to suffer through confusion and frustration, willing to face limitations and overcome obstacles, open to the views of others, and willing to entertain ideas that many people find threatening.

That is, there is no point in our trying to model and encourage curiosity, if we are not willing to foster an environment in which the minds of our students can learn the value and pain of hard intellectual work.

We do our students a disservice if we imply that all we need is unbridled curiosity, that with it alone knowledge comes to us with blissful ease in an atmosphere of fun, fun, fun. What good is curiosity if we don't know what to do next or how to satisfy it? We can create the environment necessary to the discipline, power, joy, and work of critical thinking only by modeling it before and with our students.

They must see our minds at work. Our minds must stimulate theirs with questions and yet further question; questions that probe information and experience; questions that call for reasons and evidence; questions that lead students to examine interpretations and conclusions, pursuing their basis in fact and experience; questions that help students to discover their assumptions, questions that stimulate students to follow out the implications of their thought, to test their ideas, to take their ideas apart, to challenge their ideas, to take their ideas seriously.

It is in the totality of this intellectually rigorous atmosphere that natural curiosity thrives. It is important for our students to be productive members of the work-force. How can schools better prepare students to meet these challenges? The fundamental characteristic of the world students now enter is ever-accelerating change; a world in which information is multiplying even as it is swiftly becoming obsolete and out of date; a world in which ideas are continually restructured, retested, and rethought; where one cannot survive with simply one way of thinking; where one must continually adapt one's thinking to the thinking of others; where one must respect the need for accuracy and precision and meticulousness; a world in which job skills must continually be upgraded and perfected — even transformed.

We have never had to face such a world before. Education has never before had to prepare students for such dynamic flux, unpredictability, and complexity for such ferment, tumult, and disarray.

Are we willing to fundamentally rethink our methods of teaching? Are we willing to learn new concepts and ideas? Are we willing to learn a new sense of discipline as we teach it to our students? Are we willing to bring new rigor to our own thinking in order to help our students bring that same rigor to theirs?

Are we willing, in short, to become critical thinkers so that we might be an example of what our students must internalize and become? These are profound challenges to the profession. They call upon us to do what no previous generation of teachers was ever called upon to do.

Those of us willing to pay the price will yet have to teach side by side with teachers unwilling to pay the price. This will make our job even more difficult, but not less exciting, not less important, not less rewarding. Critical thinking is the heart of well-conceived educational reform and restructuring, because it is at the heart of the changes of the 21st Century.

Let us hope that enough of us will have the fortitude and vision to grasp this reality and transform our lives and our schools accordingly. National standards will result in national accountability. What is your vision for the future? Most of the national assessment we have done thus far is based on lower-order learning and thinking. It has focused on what might be called surface knowledge. It has rewarded the kind of thinking that lends itself to multiple choice machine-graded assessment.

We now recognize that the assessment of the future must focus on higher — not lower — order thinking; that it must assess more reasoning than recall; that it must assess authentic performances, students engaged in bona fide intellectual work.

Our problem is in designing and implementing such assessment. Department of Education, a model for the national assessment of higher order thinking. It was clear from the commitments of the departments of Education, Labor, and Commerce that such an assessment is in the cards.

Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki think pilot study. A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to all people. Elements of IBL, including characterization of the orienting problem, learner support by the instructor, and assessment of learner outcomes are outlined. Considerations for developing an IBL curriculum are addressed, and details of an example of an Army IBL course of instruction are provided.

In short, it does not greatly respect a traditional distinction between such things as physical movements, perceptions, and cognitions when it comes to training, rather treats these all as behaviors that are amenable to the same training methods and principles.

Deliberate practice techniques were applied to develop exercises to train the task of adaptive thinking in tactical situations. Developing Leaders to Adapt and Dominate for the Army of Today and Tomorrow local copy , by Davis and Martin, Military Review , Sep-Oct Change in the College comes in how we accomplish our educational mission, as well as within the content of our courses. This change is an active, evolutionary educational process that drives the institution to reexamine itself on a frequent basis.

The operational environment is dramatically different than in previous times. Additionally, there has been a tremendous growth in understanding of adult learning and professional education, and CGSC is leveraging this new science. We are educating a different generation of emerging leaders who bring incredible experience to the classroom to share. The most obvious difference over the previous 30 years is that more than 90 percent of our Army students have recent combat experience and nearly 70 percent have multiple combat tours.

Based on this background, and the ever-changing operating environment that is our world, it is easy to see that change remains a constant in the process of leader development and education for the Army. Creativity and Innovation Logic will get you from A to B.

Imagination will take you everywhere. Unreasonable people attempt to adapt the world to themselves. All progress, therefore, depends on unreasonable people. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be.

Innovation is doing new things. Eliot The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits. Out on the edge you see all kinds of things you can't see from the center. In the age of information sciences, the most valuable asset is knowledge, which is a creation of human imagination and creativity.

We were among the last to comprehend this truth and we will be paying for this oversight for many years to come. It takes repeated attempts, endless demonstrations, monotonous rehearsals before innovation can be accepted and internalized by an organization.

This requires 'courageous patience'. Ecologist Eric Berlow and physicist Sean Gourley apply algorithms to the entire archive of TEDx Talks, taking us on a stimulating visual tour to show how ideas connect globally.

Through a process of strategic innovation we can transition from "doing things right" to "doing the right thing," a shift which will ultimately result in organizational efficiencies and increased job satisfaction. The 3 Habits of Great Creative Teams , a 99 u video "When the your team is faced with adversity does it stand strong and act boldly or does it crumble under pressure? Based on his work with over teams, Keith Yamashita shares his insights about great collaborative environments including: An essay on creative thinking for military professionals local copy , by Allen, U.

An essay on creative thinking for military professionals , by Allen, U. Our choice is quite clear: Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades, and all that we cherish. Especially at the strategic level, the ability to think creatively and adapt to changing circumstances is often the difference between life and death, victory and defeat. And despite general agreement to this fact by most senior leaders, the military on the whole is ill-equipped for producing leaders who are adaptable, flexible, and who can think creatively.

Rather, its personnel makeup, focus on operations, and sheer bureaucracy all combine to create and reward leaders who are risk-averse, conformists, and good at maintaining the status quo. The CoECI provides guidance to other federal agencies and NASA centers on implementing open innovation initiatives from problem definition, to incentive design, to post- submission evaluation of solutions.

This paper examines current conditions, introduces an approach, identifies themes, and proposes actions to build momentum for the concept. As the Navy Center for Innovation , NWDC is spearheading a campaign to reinvigorate a culture of innovation within the Navy, and the guide is an important component of that endeavor.

In addition to defining innovation and why it is important, the guide provides advice on how to identify and define problems that need solving, proven techniques for finding creative solutions, and how to move these ideas through a large organization to drive towards implementation.

It's up to us to give them the tools and the open channels to be successful," said Rear Adm. In his introduction, Kraft challenges the junior leaders to think deeply, question continuously, debate vigorously, read broadly, write boldly and never give up on a good idea. To download The Innovator's Guide, visit https: This thesis uses a historical overview of military innovation among great powers throughout history to draw lessons for the U.

Finally, and most importantly, this study finds it essential to foster a climate and institutional culture receptive to innovation. A true meritocracy would allow leaders to promote the most promising soldiers and officers despite their inability to meet any time-in-service requirements.

The "year-group" promotion system codifies a rigid bureaucratic structure that ensures slow change and little innovation. How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization , by Zweibelson, in Small Wars Journal , 4 Sep - includes eight recommendations at the end, to "restore the briefer as a critical thinker" PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and developing concepts among military professionals in a variety of venues.

Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the ever-present bright projection of PowerPoint upon a screen. When you attend a briefing and the majority of slides and material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the problem. Instead of thinking about why something is occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive WHAT-centric procedure instead of a critical line of inquiry.

If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of choice for continuing the reductionist and highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships.

Each quadrant in a quad chart should systemically relate to the other quadrants in terms of context. If you are only removing one component while the three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to improve organizational learning. In theory, this implies an alternate route for information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in tandem.

In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. This prepares an audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. From Ideas to Adoption , by Denning, in The Futurist , Jan-Feb - "Futurists and innovators can teach each other lessons to help their ideas succeed.

The challenge they face is to cultivate good ideas by giving innovators just the right blend of freedom and support. One simple approach that is not taken often enough is to let the innovators themselves decide how the organization can help them develop their ideas.

Expecting the Unexpected local copy , by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break.

Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Obtain project sponsor approval. Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copy , by Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation.

Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership. The most critical area the Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences. Innovation Starvation , by Stephenson, in World Policy Journal , Fall Still, I worry that our inability to match the achievements of the s space program might be symptomatic of a general failure of our society to get big things done.

The vast and radical innovations of the midth century took place in a world that, in retrospect, looks insanely dangerous and unstable. In short, a world where big stuff can never get done. Do schools kill creativity?

Bring on the learning revolution! How to escape education's death valley , a TED. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational "death valley" we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility. What schools are encouraged to do is to find out what kids can do across a very narrow spectrum of achievement.

Our children and teachers are encouraged to follow routine algorithms rather than to excite that power of imagination and curiosity. Instead, what we have is a culture of standardization. Seth Godin Seth Godin: Quieting the Lizard Brain , a 99 u video "Bestselling author and entrepreneur Seth Godin outlines a common creative affliction: Godin targets our "lizard brain" as the source of these primal doubts, and implores us to "thrash at the beginning" of projects so that we can ship on time and on budget.

How to get your ideas to spread - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "In a world of too many options and too little time, our obvious choice is to just ignore the ordinary stuff.

Marketing guru Seth Godin spells out why, when it comes to getting our attention, bad or bizarre ideas are more successful than boring ones" other TED. The key to growth? Race with the machines - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "As machines take on more jobs, many find themselves out of work or with raises indefinitely postponed. Is this the end of growth? Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Robert Gordon. Are we witnessing the end of growth?

Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and growing inequality, which could move the US into a period of stasis we can't innovate our way out of. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Erik Brynjolfsson. Your elusive creative genius - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and geniuses -- and shares the radical idea that, instead of the rare person "being" a genius, all of us "have" a genius.

It's a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk. How to build your creative confidence - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "Is your school or workplace divided into "creatives" versus practical people?

Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is not the domain of only a chosen few. Telling stories from his legendary design career and his own life, he offers ways to build the confidence to create How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around BC and Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of light in From mach glider to humming bird drone - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail?

In this breathtaking talk she describes some of the extraordinary projects -- a robotic hummingbird, a prosthetic arm controlled by thought, and, well, the internet -- that her agency has created by not worrying that they might fail. But Steven Johnson shows how history tells a different story. His fascinating tour takes us from the "liquid networks" of London's coffee houses to Charles Darwin's long, slow hunch to today's high-velocity web. At TEDxMaastricht speaker Bart Knols demos the imaginative solutions his team is developing to fight malaria -- including limburger cheese and a deadly pill.

Unintended consequences - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "Every new invention changes the world -- in ways both intentional and unexpected. Historian Edward Tenner tells stories that illustrate the under-appreciated gap between our ability to innovate and our ability to foresee the consequences. The era of open innovation - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "In this deceptively casual talk, Charles Leadbeater weaves a tight argument that innovation isn't just for professionals anymore.

Passionate amateurs, using new tools, are creating products and paradigms that companies can't. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we're caught doodling in a meeting? She makes the case for unlocking your brain via pad and pen. The Science of Insight Creation , 40 min. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights?

What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. Creativity Techniques - short descriptions of a whole passel of techniques Roots of Innovation local copy, 2.

This annotated briefing documents a research effort aimed at understanding and predicting how militaries may improve their battlefield effectiveness. The briefing first analyzes military innovation conceptually and then formulates a framework for predicting the likelihood of innovative success. The research synthesizes a broad literature on innovation and provides a useful tool for assessing future military developments.

Brain and Creativity Institute , University of Southern California The mission of the Brain and Creativity Institute is to gather new knowledge about the human emotions, decision-making, memory, and communication, from a neurological perspective, and to apply this knowledge to the solution of problems in the biomedical and sociocultural arenas.

From Stone to Silicon: Feats of memory anyone can do - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "There are people who can quickly memorize lists of thousands of numbers, the order of all the cards in a deck or ten! Science writer Joshua Foer describes the technique -- called the memory palace -- and shows off its most remarkable feature: Army War College, June The following pages discuss why it is so hard for Army senior leaders to change their minds.

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In this interview for Think magazine (April ’’92), Richard Paul provides a quick overview of critical thinking and the issues surrounding it: defining it, common mistakes in assessing it, its relation to communication skills, self-esteem, collaborative learning, motivation, curiosity, job skills.

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An Educator's Guide to Critical Thinking Terms and Concepts. clarify: To make easier to understand, to free from confusion or ambiguity, to remove donnievales9rdq.cfy is a fundamental perfection of thought and clarification a fundamental aim in critical thinking. Critical reading is a technique for discovering information and ideas within a text; critical thinking is a technique for evaluating information and ideas, for deciding what to accept and believe.

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Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Metropolitan Community College. CRITICAL THINKING: A Beginner's Guide To Critical Thinking, Better Decision Making, And Problem Solving! - Kindle edition by Jennifer Wilson. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading CRITICAL THINKING: A Beginner's Guide To Critical Thinking, Better Decision Making, And Problem Solving!.